May 02 2016

Philosophy Sunday: The Catch Up #3

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This post will be another one that is a bit unorthodox, as the philosophy in question will actually be something that I came up with myself. The idea is based on the concept of the age of accountability in Christianity. Defined, it is the idea that if you are under the age of accountability, your eternity will always lie in heaven — as you are too young to be capable of making moral decisions. My theory is that for Christians who truly believe in the idea of the age of accountability, have a moral basis and impetus on which to murder every child they come in contact with who is under the age of accountability.

Theory of Accountability

a.) If the individual believes in the age of accountability, and that those beneath it go to heaven

b.) If an individual values the eternity of human-beings

c.) If an individual does not value his eternity over multiple other eternities

d.) Then an individual has a moral duty to murder all those beneath the age of accountability on the grounds of eternal impact

The grounds of this argument lies on the idea that you as an individual value the multiple (+eternities) over your one (-eternity), and that furthermore the moral impetus lies with the individual for their sacrifice.

Happy thinking!

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May 01 2016

Philosophy Sunday: The Catch Up #2

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I’m going to go out on a bit of limb for this one, and start a philosophy post on a philosopher that I don’t know much about, but that I think his ideas are rather interesting. The philosopher in question is Michel Foucault. He differs a bit from the philosophers that I normally talk about, mainly because of his place is history. Foucault was a 20th century philosopher whose focus lied in the matters of history, and that essentially academia had destroyed the true glory of history with its boring and dry presentation. Even as we, as students, look at our education about history, we are taught to understand the ideas of history to get a better idea of the circumstances that people lived in, or the barbaric practices that we have advanced away from. However, Foucault dismisses the idea that we as a society have advanced much at all, and in a variety of subjects. For example, he analyzes the history of the mentally “insane”, or those with mental illness in the past. In places like Rome, these people for heralded for their “pushing of the boundary of logic”, and were allowed to walk around as any other person were to. Now, we look at mental illness as a disease, instead of a difference, and Foucault very much does not like this idea. Taking those who are mentally ill and separating them from society to be studied by doctors; it’s exactly what Foucault thought was the opposite of what to do. The same way that we as a society think that we have progressed past criminal brutality, as juxtaposed with public hangings, Foucault believed that at least this way there was the possibility of rebellion and a rallying around the criminal being punished — instead of everything happening behind closed doors as it is today. In any case, Foucault gives his readers a new way to analyze history and the present day.

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May 01 2016

Philosophy Sunday — The Catch Up #1

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Alright boys, time for a long overdue update on some philosophical shenanigans. I’ve been off into the distant language classrooms running a class, so I should have some pretty good material to supplement this absence. This post will be on the topic I started my philosophy class with: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. Anywho, to start off let’s have some background info into who Mr. Plato is. Plato was essentially a follower and recorder of Socrates. Plato himself did obviously then transition into the philosopher that we know today, but his early time was spent taking the teachings of Socrates and putting them into writing — as Socrates wouldn’t do it himself; or something like that. but alas, I digress. To set up the cave: prisoners are sitting chained to the ground and looking at the wall that opposes them, while puppeteers behind them occasionally put objects into the ledge that separates a fire and the backs of the puppeteers so that the object’s shadow is projected unto the wall before the prisoners. Granted, the prisoners have been in the cave their entire lives, and have no notion of the “reality” that exists bar the shadows projected on the wall, and the other prisoners. The prisoners then develop a sort of religion that focuses on the shadows and their meanings, accepting the shadows as their reality. However, one prisoner escapes the cave, and then is introduced to the outside. he is met with a blinding light, and all of the objects that were once shadowed in front of him — in all of their real glory. The prisoner begins to explore and understand this new reality, and comes to the conclusion that he should share this new found knowledge with his previous prisoners. Alas, as the prisoner returns and begins to describe the outside, the other prisoners dismiss his reality of the outside, for they do not know that it exists. They plan to kill the escaped prisoner, and so the tell ends. This truly is an allegory of philosophy, and the reality that it presents to those that have found it. The story also demonstrates the idea that aggressively trying to bestow new found knowledge on those who are ignorant, will most likely backfire.

 

Here is the link to a video that describes the allegory, so you may find yourself out of the cave: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWlUKJIMge4

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Apr 21 2016

Plath Poem

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Today  I read an analysis of Plath’s poem “Cut”. This analysis was part of a larger essay by Vidhu Aggarwal called “Talking body parts and missing commodities: cinematic complexes and Sylvia Plath”. In the analysis the author addresses Plath’s euphoric rush in cutting as she describes there being a ‘thrill’. Aggarwal describes the poem as a whole as ” an extreme close-up, with inter-cutting images”. This is due to Plath’s raw style and cacophonous words creating cutting sounds to further her imagery. ” The poem also has some of the attendant violence, and wild associations, a “black cinema” as one critic characterized her late poems (Furbank 74). There is a similar observational stance that the speaker takes to “her” injured thumb. The near-dismemberment is fascinating.” The author finds the speakers lack of tears during this scene even more fascinating, describing the character as incessantly abrupt and confusing to coincide with the motif of a cut. Next the author addresses Plath’s ending line of the poem (“Thumb stump”) and goes in depth about the Freudian interpretations which may be concluded from this line.

I will provide the poem here for further reading:

What a thrill —
My thumb instead of an onion.
The top quite gone
Except for a sort of a hinge

Of skin,
A flap like a hat,
Dead white.
Then that red plush.

Little pilgrim,
The Indian’s axed your scalp.
Your turkey wattle
Carpet rolls

Straight from the heart.
I step on it,
Clutching my bottle
Of pink fizz.

A celebration, this is.
Out of a gap
A million soldiers run,
Redcoats, every one.

Whose side are they on?
O my
Homunculus, I am ill.
I have taken a pill to kill

The thin
Papery feeling.
Saboteur,
Kamikaze man —

The stain on your
Gauze Ku Klux Klan
Babushka
Darkens and tarnishes and when

The balled
Pulp of your heart
Confronts its small
Mill of silence

How you jump —
Trepanned veteran,
Dirty girl,
Thumb stump.

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Apr 20 2016

Anarchist Morality, by Robert Graham

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Continuing with my research into ethics and morality I came across an interesting article discussing the topic of both the ethicality and morality behind anarchism (a systemless system of governance most often associated with lawless disorder) The author begins, “Contrary to popular misconceptions, most self-identified anarchists were not nihilistic egoists or amoralists, like Max Stirner, but instead were critics of the parsimonious and hypocritical morality found in existing society, which is designed to encourage subservience and obedience. Anarchists argued that people can only be “moral,” in a positive sense, in a society of equals without hierarchy and domination.” In accordance to the words of Elisée Reclus in 1894, “Official morality consists of bowing humbly to one’s superiors and in proudly holding up one’s head before one’s subordinates” The author argues that morality in the truest sense of the word can only be experienced between to individuals of equal stature. “It is not only against the abstract trinity of law, religion, and authority” that anarchists declare war, according to Kropotkin, but the inequality that gives rise to “deceit, cunning, exploitation, depravity, vice… It is in the name of equality that we are determined to have no more prostituted, exploited, deceived and governed men and women.” Anarchy looks to break down all semblances of class and division between individuals, to create a society of truly equal people. Anarchists believe that acting morally not only aids one’s ultimate goal of self-fulfillment, but is inherent to man’s nature. A sense of justice and equality will lead one to stand in solidarity with their neighbors, “which brings the individual to consider the rights of every other individual as equal to his own,” The ideology of anarchy sought the creation of a world in which everyone is free to develop their lives in pursuit of whatever he or she should wish, taking one’s strengths and talents to the fullest of their capability. This philosophy is in direct opposition to the world in which we live today. A world in which men, women, and even children are forced to engage in painstaking labor in the pursuit of capital gain simply as a means of sustaining their own existence. All moral reasoning, in line with the credence of anarchy itself, opposes the capitalist system which breeds violence and hate, driving the wedge between classes further and further as time goes on. “It is for these reasons that anarchism, Kropotkin wrote, “refuses all hierarchical organization” (Volume One, Selection 41). As Charlotte Wilson (1854-1944), who helped found the English language anarchist newspaper, Freedom, with Kropotkin in 1886, explained, “all coercive organization” with its “machine-like regularity is fatal to the realization” of the anarchist ideal of self-fulfillment for all, not just the privileged few (Volume One, Selection 37).”

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Apr 19 2016

Procrastination and Morality, by Jennifer Baker

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Whilst finishing up my analysis of my previous article on procrastination I found another, more philosophical look at the morality of procrastination itself. This article provided me with a fresh perspective on procrastination, rather than looking at the “whys?” behind procrastination this article tool highlighting the philosophy behind procrastination in determining the relationship between human morality and procrastination. Baker writes this article in response to the question of whether or not procrastination is a sin in the christian faith. “The classic Christian writings on procrastination (if that is what the message board poster was looking for) argue that we can procrastinate about only what matters: salvation.” The author suggests that in asking the question “is procrastination a sin?” rather than an answer to the question itself we are looking for some kind of explanation for how exactly the behavior of procrastination benefits a human being. “Some common responses will not work to this end. Merely explaining the bad consequences of procrastination won’t do it. Merely condemning procrastinators in harsh terms won’t do it. Arguing that procrastinators are less rational than others won’t do it.” Sin in itself is a human vice, can we classify procrastination as a vice if it is indeed a sin, or is procrastination a vice outside of the realm of sin? The author then looks at the concept of procrastination in accordance to the philosophy of Aristotle, “Aristotle, for example, would not count procrastination as a vice. No one wants to be a procrastinator, it sneaks up on you. This is unlike the person who decides to be a slacker, and commits himself to this… lifestyle choice. He might have all sorts of ideas of why other people should do work, work that is unworthy of him. A procrastinator feels terrible about her failures to contribute (it seems like a procrastinator might even feel terrible about her failure to contribute more than average!) No, it wouldn’t be a vice, Aristotle would say. It’s a feature of our human psychology. In various ways we fail to live up to what we think we should do. The problems procrastinators have are just like the obstacles we all face.” To understand procrastination as a behavior one must know the ins and outs of the different types of procrastinators themselves. Some individuals take pleasure in the act of procrastinating their responsibilities. Other individuals avoid tasks in fear of being judged by their final product. Some individuals are decisional procrastinators who cannot make up their minds in wanting to do work or not, ultimately preferring the option being left open. Aristotle, as the author says, would interpret this as an unfortunate caveat of human nature, not as an element of vice. In accordance to the ideas Aristotle preached himself, procrastination is nothing more than a bad habit, not a sin. The author then counters Aristotle’s perceived view by presenting the work of more traditional ethicists, “But for some other traditional ethicists, the Stoics and the Epicureans, procrastination would meet the standards of vice. They wouldn’t focus on how common it is or how easily we can fall into the trap of it. They’d be seeking out the false beliefs involved in procrastination. What are these? Some are going to be about the relative importance of the ends causing the anxiety. Some might be about your own relative importance. Procrastination, these ethicists would think, is a sign that a person does not understand what is really of value yet. If you are up all night, worried sick once again about a presentation you have not sufficiently rehearsed, the Stoic or Epicurean voice in your head would be the one saying, “The presentation does not matter; the presentation is not worth this.” Or maybe the false belief is about yourself? Is it that you cannot fail? That your work must be superior? That you are the perfect home keeper?” After presenting these two different philosophical view points on the ethics behind procrastination she goes on to compare this with the ideas presented to the reader in modern day culture, fast paced, ADHD inducing stimuli bombardment. “You see how contrary this is to some messages we get from our culture. I like to call it the Poor Richard view of life: it is bettered by doing more. “Lose no time, be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary action!” The author in conclusion applies the ideals and ethics of the Epicureans and the Stoics and applies it to the modern day career of being a writer and a student. “If you are a writer who never makes a deadline, the Epicureans would certainly not encourage you to strengthen your will; rather, they would question your choice of occupation. What could you do that would not cause this level of anxiety? Beyond your provision of basic needs, no matter what you are procrastinating about, the Epicureans could say that the task is not necessary to a good life. So why beat yourself up? The Stoics might not encourage any student who procrastinated before tests to give up on his studies in the breezy way an Epicurean might, but they also would not put the onus on strengthening one’s will when faced with issues of time management. They would recommend comfort with the consequences of procrastination instead. Take the bad grade. Lose the account. Be frank with your editor about how late you started your revision. Accept that you procrastinate, do not attempt to lie about or hide this, and move on to focus on what really matters.”

 

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Apr 19 2016

Why wait? The Psychological origins of procrastination, by Elliot T. Berkeman

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In honor of my absence from the blog these past few fridays I have decided to analyze an article appropriate to my situation, thus I came to find this article on procrastination. Berkman opens this piece with a quote by the english author Douglas Adams, “I love deadlines. I love the whooshing noise they make as they go by.” Berkman opts to empathize with the reader as he recounts at times where even he (a Psychology professor at the University of Oregon) has either cared too much or too little about a project and ended up doing something completely counterproductive (in his case cleaning his house rather than grading papers for his students) Procrastination is putting off a task which one knows must be completed by ignoring it and doing something else in its stead. To do, or not to do that is the question. It all starts with a decision Berkman writes, the decision to begin work on a given project now, or later. “The decision to work on something is driven by how much we value accomplishing the project in that moment – what psychologists call its subjective value. And procrastination, in psychological terms, is what happens when the value of doing something else outweighs the value of working now.” This way of thinking would suggest that a quick fix to avoid the ill effects of procrastination would be to somehow increase the subject value of the given project, higher so than the value of doing something else (another project, or something fun) The distant deadline. People as a whole do not always value things in a rational manner I.E. the value of a dollar will be the same today as it is a week from now but the idea of having a dollar now rather than in a week is much more appealing. “The tendency for people to devalue money and other goods based on time is called delay discounting. For example, one study showed that, on average, receiving $100 three months from now is worth the same to people as receiving $83 right now. People would rather lose $17 than wait a few months to get a larger reward.” Many factors, both outside and inside of the self, contribute to the idea that the balance between objective value and subjective value is far from perfect. “Delay discounting is a factor in procrastination because the completion of the project happens in the future. Getting something done is a delayed reward, so its value in the present is reduced: the further away the deadline is, the less attractive it seems to work on the project right now.” A possible fix to delay discounting one’s deadline is to make the “finish line” appear closer than it really is. No work is effortless. The completion of a given project is devalued both by the fact that it occurs in the future and by he fact that the idea of working on something appears unnactrive because working on something requires the exertion of effort by the individual. “New research supports the idea that mental effort is intrinsically costly; for this reason, people generally choose to work on an easier task rather than a harder task. Furthermore, there are greater subjective costs for work that feels harder (though these costs can be offset by experience with the task at hand). This leads to the interesting prediction that people would procrastinate more the harder they expect the work to be. That’s because the more effort a task requires, the more someone stands to gain by putting the same amount of effort into something else (a phenomenon economists call opportunity costs). Opportunity costs make working on something that seems hard feels like a loss.” The big idea being that the harder a task seems to be (the more effort which appears necessary to complete a given task) the higher chance that procrastination will be chosen over actually completing the given task. A possible solution to opportunity cost being the breaking up of a project into smaller more manageable tasks instead of one large imposing task. Your work your identity. “When we write that procrastination is a side effect of the way we value things, it frames task completion as a product of motivation, rather than ability.” One may be exceptionally skilled in a given task, but if one’s motivation is lacking all the skill in the world will fall short of the urge to put said task off. Motivation, or one’s appetite to work, can be likened to our appetite for food, we may not require any intake of nutrients/calories for energy but everyday we eat three meals a day right on time (and when we don’t we feel the pain of hunger gnawing at out stomachs) Procrastination, like our appetites, is as Berkman puts it, “closely intertwined with our daily lives, our culture and our sense of who we are.” Berkman then goes on to argue that one can increase the subjective value of a task by tying said task to one’s own self concept. A task important to one’s view of themselves will seem more subjectively valuable than that of an irrelevant task which one has no self interest in. ” It’s for this reason that Hanks also wrote that procrastination seems to stem from a failure to “identify sufficiently with your future self” – in other words, the self for whom the goal is most relevant. Because people are motivated to maintain a positive self concept, goals connected closely to one’s sense of self or identity take on much more value. Connecting the project to more immediate sources of value, such as life goals or core values, can fill the deficit in subjective value that underlies procrastination.”

 

 

 

 

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Apr 15 2016

“Order and Disorder in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye” by Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi

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This article addresses the three main women in the story as well as the prostitutes and how they fit into society. He begins with Geraldine. He says that all off the women are typical women of their respective social classes, therefore Geraldine is the typical middle class African American of the time period. He says, “Hernton’s description tallies with her role in the novel: ‘[They] share the same contempt and stereotyped views about `lower-class’ Negroes as the outer society.'” The contempt is emphasized in her scene with Pecola when she blames an innocent girl just because she is “low class.” Next he addresses Mrs. MacTeer and how she is the typical lower-middle class African American woman. He says that all women in her position use good-neighborly charity to put up a false face and cover their inability to tolerate the less privileged. He does say that she has some redeeming qualities though. He says, “Her saving grace, which puts her above a character like Geraldine, is her ability to love, coupled with her sense of humor.” The fact that Mrs. MacTeer genuinely loves her children puts her slightly above a character like Geraldine. He then transitions to Mrs. Breedlove. He makes some interesting observations about her and says, “Her constant assay of the white world through going to movies and working for whits makes her fit some of Hernton’s observations: ‘Black men and women `fuss and fight’ constantly, because the values of the white supremacist’s world invade their lives from sunup to sundown.'” I’m not sure if you can blame racism on many of Black people’s marital problems and arguments but it probably affects them a decent amount. He finishes his analysis by examining Mrs. Breedlove’s words of how going to the movies has made it hard to look at Cholly and herself.

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Apr 15 2016

Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw By: Rictor Norton

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http://rictornorton.co.uk/henjames.htm

So this article I found is really really long and it has a lot of different bits and pieces to it. I would defiantly recommend reading the whole piece if Turn of the Screw is one of the books you are preparing for the AP test. That being said, because its so dense and long I’m only going to be sharing two interpretations that were in this article. Along with that the interpretations are copy and pasted directly from the original article, not for lack of trying to paraphrase, but because I think all the info he has around the ideas and novella evidence are important.

    • Robert Heilman’s interpretation of the story as a Christian allegory
      • The story is virtually a morality play, involving the typical conflict of divine and demonic agents fighting for the soul of Everyman. The garden at Bly is the Garden of Eden; Miles and Flora are Adam and Eve in a state of prelapsarian innocence; Quint corresponds to folklore descriptions of the Devil; the governess is both an angel sent from God and a Christ-like mediator. By the end of the story, the Fall has occurred, but at the last minute the governess exorcises the demon from Miles’s soul and thereby saves him. Other apparitionist critics have expanded and rounded out this interpretation; the only character left unaccounted for is Miss Jessel, who too often is seen as merely the artistic counterpart to Quint. Miss Jessel, as cohort of Satan, is probably the Lilith in the Judaeo-Kabbalistic tradition who united with Adam and brought forth the race of demons, imps, and fairies. In Greek mythology Lilith corresponds to the figure of Lamia, who has at least two characteristics in common with Miss Jessel. In a fit of jealousy Hera destroyed Lamia’s children, whereupon Lamia gained revenge by seeking to destroy others’ children in her wanderings by becoming a serpent-woman and a succubus who ate children and sucked their blood; perhaps this is why Miss Jessel in her attempt to destroy Flora is called “a pale and ravenous demon.” Lamia’s continual emotional state was extreme misery, similar to that of Niobe weeping over her own children destroyed by Hera; again like her, Miss Jessel’s most noticeable characteristic is her “inutterable woe.”
    • 2nd interpretation
      • Seeing the governess as the “Grand Inquisitor” hasnt actually been looked at in detail, he says that it “is more often felt than analyzed”
        • Could see Flora and Miles as witches or even Mrs. Gross
      • Suggests the way the governess seeks information mimic that action of a thumbscrew
      • The story has a three-part division which parallels the standard three-part structure of inquisitorial torture (the source of the first-, second-, and third-degrees used in the local police interrogation). The first session of the “dreadfully austere inquiry,” called the Preparatory Torture, usually involved allowing the victim to view the instruments of torture, and merely threatening their use. This stage corresponds to the prologue through the middle of chapter four, when the governess sees Quint outside the window and realizes that she must protect Miles from his influence. In this section the governess is “prepared” by omens of evil and her vision of Quint just as the reader is “prepared” by the careful build-up of the prologue.
      • If the Preparatory Torture fails, the inquisitor proceeds to the first part of the Final Torture, called the Ordinary Torture of question definitif, which usually involved pressing, the strappedo, and sometimes the thumbscrews. This phase corresponds to the middle of chapter four through the middle of chapter fourteen, when the governess confronts Miles outside the church and unwittingly reveals her knowledge of the situation.
      • If the Ordinary Torture does not result in a complete confession, the inquisitor would begin the last part of the Final Torture, called the Extraordinary Torture or question extraordinaire, which usually involved squassation and the more exotic instruments that lead to death, such as the spine-screw, the neck-screw, the skull-screw, bone-splitters, the wheel, and a variety of mutilators. This phase corresponds to the middle of chapter fourteen through the end of the story, from the governess’ first real confrontation with Miles through the last scene in which she fulfills her role as confessor-exorcist.

Again I really enjoyed this article and it has really good support for the ideas Norton talks about. The article also really explores ideas that we may or may not have touched on or didn’t even think of in class, but that’s what made it interesting. I would say overall though that it does leave a lot to think about on how each reader approaches the novella and its characters

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Apr 15 2016

“The Many Faces of Jesus in “The Grapes Of Wrath”” by Rachel McCoppin

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HI, everyone!
In the spirit of Philosophy Friday, I thought that I would try out an article that discussed transcendentalism and existentialism! The article tied these philosophical concepts into Christianity and Steinbeck’s “The Grapes of Wrath!”.

The article discussed how Steinbeck’s novel takes altruism a step further and ties it to Christianity and Jesus. To tie his characters to Jesus, Steinbeck incorporated transcendentalism into his novel. The article discussed that many of Steinbeck’s characters adopted transcendentalist views in which they are personally responsible for others. This transcendentalist view, however, does not align with the idea that Christ is more divine than any being. The article then went into depth about what exactly existentialism and transcendentalism are as well as how they are similar and different. In a nutshell, Existentialism is when a person searches for what is right in the face of adversity, while Transcendentalism is the concept of being altruistic and selfless at any cost.

The article listed the first Christ figure as Jim Casey, Whose initials are even the same as Jesus Christ. Casy does not simply want to preach Christianity, but he also wants to live the hardships of people alongside of him ( similarly to Jesus in the bible). The article also analyzed that Casy’s death parallels to the death of Jesus Christ because Casy died while resisting the police against landowner injustice. Casy essentially sacrificed his life to benefit others similarly to the way that Jesus did.

Next, the article listed that Tom Joad reflected a Christ figure when he “healed the half blind man. The article also describes that Tom Joad adopted Casy’s lifestyle and mindset after Casy’s untimely death because Casy was his teacher.

The last two characters that the article listed as Christ figures were Ma Joad and Rose of Sharon. The article says that Ma Joad is a Christ figure because she gives food to random hungry children, which reflects the biblical story of the multiplying fish and bread. Rose of Sharon was identified as a Christ figure because she selflessly breastfed a starving man. The article then explained how Casy and Tom had the chance to escape their trauma through death and running away, but Ma Joad and Rose of Sharon are forced to live with perpetual suffering of loss, which are sacrifices that will follow them to the grave.

Overall, I really enjoyed the article. I do wish, however, that Sean or Nathan were with me while I read this to help me decipher the philosophical explanations because most the descriptions went way over my head. I also feel that the article glazed over the references to biblical stories in the novel. for instance, the article only took up one sentence to talk about how the flood in the novel reflected the Great flood in the novel. The article also mentioned that transcendentalists believe that no being should be higher than another being, which I feel really contradicted the idea that transcendentalist characteristics were applied to Steinbeck’s characters to parallel them to Christ figures. Shouldn’t they not be seen as Christ figures since Christ is higher than all other beings? Anyway, I thought that the ideas were really solid and I really liked the concepts that the article discussed. We talked a little bit about Christ figures in “The Grapes of Wrath” during Mr. Cooper’s class, so it was really cool furthering this idea after a couple of years ( Major throwback!)
Here is the link below! I hope that you enjoy!!!

http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/suic/AcademicJournalsDetailsPage/AcademicJournalsDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SUIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Journals&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=SUIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CA405013012&source=Bookmark&u=hano15937&jsid=cfe1146ac8b940c0a8d9b57e913fe1c6

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